The question of food security is commonly raised as a key reason for the development of urban agriculture. At different spatial and economic scales, the question of food security varies. Although food security is usually the term employed, in urban agricultural literature to refer to the provision of a stable supply of food, a related but important variation meaning attends the term when employed in China. In China, food security refers not just to the guarantee of supply of fresh food, but is deeply bound up with notions of food safety. During qualitative interviews, conducted with key informants in Shandong Provence in 2016, narratives of quality food production featured strongly as motivating forces for urban agriculture production. Compared to the notion of food security in western countries, which can be traced to the trend of urban sprawl, removing the chance of local production, the meaning of food security in China is deeply influenced by scandals of food poisoning, as had occurred in recent decades. Our interview transcripts show that the deep concerns on food quality has been internalized by the Chinese people, especially the middle and upper class. The localization of food production through a closer acquaintance network became popular in the inner city, predicting a possible transition of food supply system. However, the transition, though inspiring, is difficult because of the conflicts on the land property rights. Therefore, it is urgent for China to institutionalize urban agricultural land use transitions, for the promotion of food security through closer social networking.